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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl3677\margr2950\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn3677\margrsxn2950\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx3787 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 FOREIGN WRITINGS{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw0 5}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li19\fi0\ri0\sb235\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw13\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 and Roman works by Quintus Curtius, Diodoros \expndtw4 Siculus, Arrian, Plutarch, and others; and the value of \expndtw7 their testimony can best be judged from the fact that \expndtw12 but for them we should have known nothing about \expndtw3 the Macedonian invasion, so thoroughly have Indian \expndtw2 writers maintained silence regarding this memorable \expndtw-1 episode. The \i Indika \i0 of Megasthenes, the Seleucid am\-\expndtw8 bassador at the Maurya court, is another important \expndtw3 source of information about the institutions, geography \expndtw7 and products of India. It is now lost to us, but frag\-\expndtw5 ments are still preserved in the form of quotations by \expndtw2 later authors, such as Arrian, Appian, Strabo, Justin, \charscalex94\expndtw0 etc. Similarly, the \i "Periplus of the Erythrean Sea \i0 and \charscalex100\expndtw-3 Ptolemy's \i Geography \i0 furnish geographical data of interest,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li5\fi451\ri41\sb0\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw9\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Like the classical (Greek and Roman) works, \expndtw1 Chinese literature is also of great help in reconstructing \expndtw2 ancient Indian history. There are numerous notices in it \expndtw0 regarding the movements of the predatory Central Asian \expndtw-2 tribes that profoundly aflFected the destinies of India; and \expndtw1 above all, we have the excellent narratives of Fa-hian \expndtw2 (399-414 A. D.)\super 1\nosupersub , Yuan Chwang (629-45 A. D.)\\ and \expndtw-1 I-tsing \i (c. \i0 673-95 A. D.)\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 three of the most distinguished \expndtw1 pilgrims, who visited India in search of knowledge and \expndtw3 with the desire to worship at the sites hallowed by the \expndtw10 memory of the Buddha. Further, the works of the \expndtw4 Tibetan Lama Taranatha, the \i Dulva \i0 and \i Tangyur, \i0 etc, may also be profitably consulted,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi446\ri48\sb5\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw8\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Then come the Moslem authors, who inform us \expndtw2 how ste\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'a3\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 > by step the armies of Islam conquered India \expndtw8 and introduced another vigorous factor into Indian \expndtw11 polity. The most celebrated of such writers was \expndtw6 Alberuni, a man of versatile intellect and a scholar of}\par }